Models & Simulation

Models and simulations are frequently the core of health economics research. AdRes possesses unique experience in modeling, mastering several techniques, such as:

  • decision trees;
  • Markov and Markov/Monte Carlo models, with probabilistic sensitivity analysis;
  • fully probabilistic Markov/Monte Carlo models (Bayesian statistics – based);
  • DES models (Discrete Event Simulation).

Models can be developed from scratch for the purpose of the specific problem or by adapting international pharmacoeconomic models to the specific Italian setting.


Economic evaluations performed by AdRes can be targeted at the development of dossiers, reports or presentations such as:

  • dossiers supporting price negotiations;
  • reclassification dossiers;
  • PTO – PTOR Dossiers (Italian Regional Hospital Formulary);
  • pre- or post-marketing internal evaluation reports;
  • marketing and opportunity analysis.

Software Systems

AdRes directly designs and develops support software for clinical and pharmacoeconomic research, as, for example:

  • applications for calculation and simulation, based on pharmacoeconomic models;
  • electronic case files, specifically designed for the research protocol;
  •  integrated web-based systems for data collection in multicenter studies, monitoring and project management (eCRF systems).

Observational Studies

AdRes organizes and coordinates retrospective or prospective, mono- or multi-centric observational studies, managing:

  • study design and protocol drafting;
  • statistical and pharmacoeconomic analyses of full studies and/or preliminary explorative phases;
  • coordination between clinical centers and Ethical Committees;
  • development and upload of web-based data collection systems (eCRF);
  • hosting of the eCRF data collection system on specific servers, with customer service, database backup, guarantee of service availability, and required security of data transactions;
  • respect of Italian Privacy Law concerning personal data preservation and treatment;
  • organizational and scientific secretary.

Medical Writing

AdRes supplies a critical literature review service for technical reports and paper drafting of content for submission to scientific journals, conferences and other forms of scientific divulgation.

Professional Training

AdRes manages specific residential training programs on topics and techniques in pharmacoeconomics. Training options are customized to comply with the client’s specific requirements.

Suggested readings

Pharmaceutical Market Access in Developed MarketsPatient Reported Outcome